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class de francais 3

??????? : shirin      چهارشنبه، 27 آذر ماه، 1392      موضوع : فرانسه

class de francais  2

??????? : shirin      چهارشنبه، 20 آذر ماه، 1392      موضوع : فرانسه

class de francais  1

??????? : shirin      چهارشنبه، 20 آذر ماه، 1392      موضوع : فرانسه

You've decided to translate a poem. Maybe you have been studying a foreign language your whole life and want to put your talents to good use. Maybe you just came back from vacation to an exotic country and fell in love with their national poet and you want to recall the romance. Either way, translating poetry is serious business and not to be taken lightly. Your job as a translator is not only to pass the meaning of the poem into another language but to respect and honor its spirit. I don't mean you need a séance with a thousand candles, begging the poem to breathe your page. I mean that there are some rules to respect when you translate a poem

 Stay Close to the Poem. Read the poem again and again until the words become second nature on your tongue. By doing this, you will be able to feel the rhythm of the poem. You will recognize the pace, the pauses, the beats, the swirls of energy. Write the poem in longhand and make ten copies. Stick these where you can see and read them. Try the bathroom, the kitchen cabinet, or the freezer door, leading to the Ben & Jerry's. These copies will familiarize you with the poem's grammatical structure: Where the adjectives are, where there is a break in tenses. Plus, if you put them on that package of Oreo's, it'll take you longer to gobble the bag down. You will have to read the poem first

… Continue

??????? : benyamin      چهارشنبه، 20 آذر ماه، 1392      موضوع : انگلیسی



People and relationships:



a firm’s clients
advise/represent a client
a prospective client


the parents of someone
a foster/adoptive/birth/single/lone parent



a younger/elder sibling
sibling rivalry


Adjectives to describe people:



an autonomous individual
an autonomous region/republic/province/unit
fiercely/relatively/largely autonomous



a consistent player/performer
consistent with something
consistent with a finding/hypothesis
entirely/fairly/broadly/remarkably consistent



conventional wisdom/thinking/treatment/
conventional forces/weapons



a co-operative approach/effort/relationship



an efficient use of something
an efficient way of doing something
an efficient manner
highly/extremely efficient
fuel/energy efficient


a flexible approach/system/arrangement
flexible working/working hours
a flexible rate/market



an idealistic notion/vision/view


tolerant of something
a tolerant society/country/attitude
racially tolerant


vulnerable to something
vulnerable to attack/damage/fire
vulnerable children/women/people
a vulnerable position
especially/highly/increasingly vulnerable




The subject of my talk today is the relationship between birth order and personality. By birth order I mean whether an individual is the firstborn child in the family, a middle child, an only child, and so on. The belief that birth order has a lasting impact on personality is widespread and frequently referred to in popular psychology literature. Alfred Adler, an Austrian psychotherapist, was one of the first to suggest that there was a connection between birth order and personality. He noticed that firstborn children experienced a loss of status with the birth of siblings. According
to Adler, this made eldest children more likely to be anxious than other children. However, on the positive side, they also tend to be conscientious and achievement-oriented, perhaps because they want to regain a position of primacy within the family. Since Adler, there have been many attempts to establish links between birth order and a range of personality traits. Some studies have found that last-born children tend to be more extrovert and agreeable, that is, they not only seek out the company of others but also tend to get along well with other people. Middle children, on the other hand, are more likely to be rebellious, perhaps in an attempt to define themselves as special’ in relation to their more conscientious elder siblings and agreeable younger siblings. Some studies, for example, have found that middle children are more likely to choose unconventional careers and hobbies. However, whilst these views are widely held among the public, scholars have more recently cast doubt on their validity. Many studies have been found to employ a flawed methodology, for instance failing to adequately consider variables such as the family’s socio-economic status. Large-scale meta-analyses of studies have proved inconclusive with no single trait consistently associated with a given position within the family. Nevertheless, most people are intuitively drawn to the idea that birth order has an effect on the sort of people we become.




I’m going to begin this section of my talk by saying something about only children, that is children without siblings. Historically, only children were relatively uncommon. However, these days, as families are becoming smaller, being an only child has become relatively more common. There are many reasons for this trend - social, economic, and political, which I won’t go into at this point. However, I will say that having an only child generally means that parental resources can be concentrated on the one child. And I would add that, by parental resources I mean not just money but also care and attention. Only children have frequently been seen as different from children with siblings and subjected to negative stereotype. They are often considered to be less tolerant of others - i.e. less able to accept differences, to allow those with different points of view to say and do as they like. Not surprisingly, they are sometimes said to be less co-operative than other children - in other words, less able to work effectively with others. On the other hand, only children are often highly regarded for their autonomy, that is to say, their ability to make their own decisions without being unduly influenced by others. In short, the picture that’s emerging is of children who are rather unconventional, that is not quite ‘normal’ in social terms. I think it’s important to say here that many of these views have been challenged. In fact more recent research has found that only children are in fact very similar to children with siblings...

??????? : aypar      سه شنبه، 25 مهر ماه، 1391      موضوع :
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